Total cutaneous water loss and sweat gland outputs in resting, passively heated individuals. (A) Regional variations in total cutaneous water loss (descending order) and (B) sweat gland output (ordered as in A). (A) is a summation of transepidermal water loss (averaged from Figure1: dorsal foot was assumed to equal the dorsal hand) and thermoregulatory sweating. Sweat data are means (with 95% confidence intervals across studies) derived from 17 studies (191 subjects: numbers are data sets used for each site), with an average sweat rate across all sites and studies of 0.36 mg.cm−2.min−1. For simplicity, all anterior surfaces of the head were included within the face. For the limbs, data from all surfaces were combined, while the hands and feet were separated according to their dorsal and volar surfaces, with corresponding data obtained from the fingers and toes included within those surfaces. Data for the buttocks came from only two studies with considerable between-study variability and should be treated cautiously. Site-specific sweat rates were computed as follows: regional sweating = ((N1 × SR1) + (N2 × SR2) + … (Ni × SRi)) ∕ NTotal (where N is the sample size, SR is the sweat rate and subscript numerals refer to separate studies). (B) shows variations in sweat gland output, derived by combining data from Figures2B and4A. Sources: Machado-Moreira and Taylor, Machado-Moreira et al., Ikeuchi and Kuno, Burch and Sodeman, Park and Tamura, Taylor et al., Machado-Moreira et al., Inoue et al., Smith et al., Hertzman, Hertzman et al., Machado-Moreira et al., Machado-Moreira et al., Cotter, Gordon and Machado-Moreira.