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Table 2 Regional distributions of physiologically active eccrine sweat glands, skin surface areas, gland counts and glandular dimensions

From: Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

Site Density (glands.cm−2) Surface area (%) Surface area (cm2) Gland count Gland mass (g) Gland length (m)
Head 186 7.43 1,342.5 250,021 8.8 1,531.4
Hand (palm) 518 1.81 327.0 169,478 5.9 1,038.1
Hand (dorsal) 166 2.83 511.4 85,153 3.0 521.6
Forearm 104 5.98 1,080.5 112,836 3.9 691.1
Upper arm 91 8.22 1,485.2 134,858 4.7 826.0
Axilla 84 1.09 196.2 16,472 0.6 100.9
Chest 94 7.60 1,374.0 129,742 4.5 794.7
Abdomen 102 7.47 1,349.7 138,315 4.8 847.2
Back 103 12.42 2,244.1 231,408 8.1 1,417.4
Buttocks 37 5.09 919.7 33,751 1.2 206.7
Thigh 69 19.86 3,588.4 246,994 8.6 1,512.8
Leg 57 13.66 2,468.2 141,299 4.9 865.5
Foot (sole) 497 2.90 524.0 260,354 9.1 1,594.7
Foot (dorsal) 119 3.64 657.7 78,272 2.7 479.4
Totals    18,070.2 2,028,954 71.0 12,427
  1. All calculations are normalised to the unisexual, morphological reference adult (70.0 kg, 1.702 m, body surface area 1.807 m2[116]). Relative surface areas were obtained from Yu et al.[110], with absolute hand and foot areas from Yu and Tu[117] and Hsu and Yu[118]. Assumptions: The chest and abdomen were assumed to be 50% of the anterior trunk; the anterior neck was added to the chest; each axilla was estimated to be 60% of palmar size, and this was subtracted from the chest; the posterior neck was added to the back. Calculations: Glandular mass calculations were based upon a mean mass of 35 μg[7]. Glandular length (6.1 mm) was based upon a secretory coil length of 3.5 mm long[54] and the assumption that the downstream duct is 75% of this length[3].