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Table 1 Accepted biomarkers for glycolysis, β-oxidation, TCA cycle function, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial density

From: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism in environmental hypoxia: climbing towards consensus

Aspect of metabolism Biomarkers
  Expression, levels or activity of enzymes/transporters Expression, levels or activity of regulators Rate measurements Other validated markers [ [13]]
Glycolysis     
  Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT)    
Hexokinase (HK)    
Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI)    
Phosphofructokinase (PFK)    
Aldolase (ALD)    
Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI)    
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH)    
Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK)    
Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM)    
Enolase (ENO)    
Pyruvate kinase (PyK)    
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)    
    Glucose oxidation  
β-oxidation     
  Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase (CACT)    
Carnitine palmitoyl transferases (CPT)    
Acyl CoA dehydrogenases    
Enoyl CoA hydratase (ECAH)    
Enoyl CoA isomerase (ECAI)    
L-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD)    
Thiolase (THI)    
  PPARα   
   Uptake/utilisation of fatty acids  
    Oxidative phosphorylation with fatty acid substrates  
TCA cycle     
  Pyruvate dehydrogenase    
Citrate synthase    
Aconitase    
Isocitrate dehydrogenase    
α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase    
Succinyl CoA synthetase    
Succinate dehydrogenase    
Fumarase    
  Malate dehydrogenase    
Oxidative phosphorylation     
  Complex I    
Complex II    
Complex III    
Complex IV    
Complex V    
Electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF)    
    Oxidative phosphorylation  
Mitochondrial density (mitochondrial density measurements by electron microscopy)     
  Bax    
Bcl-2*    
BNIP3*    
PGC-1α    
    Citrate synthase activity
     Complex IV activity
  1. *biomarkers used as negative indicators of the process.