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Table 3 The effects of environmental hypoxia on biomarkers of β-oxidation in skeletal muscle

From: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism in environmental hypoxia: climbing towards consensus

First author Year Organism Muscle model Hypoxia model p(O 2 ) min (kPa) Duration (d) Marker Change
Green [15] 1992 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 1 HOAD activity =
Roberts [30] 1996 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 1 Fatty acid oxidation =
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 1 PPARα levels
        CPT-1 levels
        CPT-1 activity
        HOAD activity =
        Palmitate oxidation
        Palmitoyl carnitine OXPHOS
Dutta [28] 2009 Rat mix 349 mmHg 10.3 7 CPT-1 activity =
        Fatty acid oxidation
        HOAD activity
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 7 PPARα levels
        CPT-1 levels
        CPT-1 activity
        HOAD activity =
        Palmitate oxidation
        Palmitoyl carnitine OXPHOS
Vigano [16] 2008 Human vl 4,559 m 12.4 8 CACT levels
        ECAH levels
        ECAI levels
Jacobs [35] 2013a Human vl 4,559 m 12.4 10 Octanoyl carnitine OXPHOS =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 5,300 m 11.3 19 HOAD activity =
Daneshrad [24] 2000 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 21 HOAD activity =
Green [15] 1992 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 21 HOAD activity =
Roberts [30] 1996 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 21 Fatty acid oxidation
Takahashi [34] 1993 Rat pla 10% O2 10.1 28 HOAD activity =
Takahashi [34] 1993 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 28 HOAD activity =
Jacobs [36] 2013b Human vl 3,454 m 14.2 28 Octanoyl carnitine OXPHOS =
Galbes [32] 2008 Rat q 4,000 m 13.3 35 CPT-1 activity
        CPT-1 levels
        HOAD activity
        Palmitoyl carnitine OXPHOS
Green [17] 1989 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 40 HOAD activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat sol 13% O2 13.1 64 HOAD activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat pla 13% O2 13.1 64 HOAD activity
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat rq 13% O2 13.1 64 HOAD activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat wq 13% O2 13.1 64 HOAD activity =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 66 HOAD activity
Mizuno [33] 2008 Human vl 5,250 m 11.4 75 HOAD activity =
Ou [26] 2004 Rat edl 5,500 m 11.0 90 Palmitate uptake
        Palmitate oxidation
  1. ↑ Change in biomarker is indicative of an increase in glycolysis in hypoxia.
  2. = No change in biomarker in hypoxia.
  3. ↓ Change in biomarker is indicative of a decrease in glycolysis in hypoxia.
  4. Abbreviations: edl extensor digitorum longus, mix mixed skeletal, pla plantaris, rq red quadriceps, sol soleus, vl vastus lateralis, wq white quadriceps.