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Table 4 The effects of environmental hypoxia on biomarkers of TCA cycle function in skeletal muscle

From: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism in environmental hypoxia: climbing towards consensus

First author Year Organism Muscle model Hypoxia model p(O 2 ) min (kPa) Duration (d) Marker Change
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 1 Citrate synthase activity =
        Aconitase activity =
Green [15] 1992 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 1 Succinate dehydrogenase activity =
Magalhaes [38] 2005 Mouse mix 8,500 m 7.4 2 Aconitase activity
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat gnm 5,860 m 10.1 3 Citrate synthase activity
        Malate dehydrogenase activity =
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat sol 5,860 m 10.1 3 Citrate synthase activity =
        Malate dehydrogenase activity =
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 7 Citrate synthase activity =
        Aconitase activity =
Dutta [28] 2009 Rat mix 349 mmHg 10.3 7 Citrate synthase activity
        Malate dehydrogenase activity
        Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Vigano [16] 2008 Human vl 4,559 m 12.4 8 Aconitase levels
        α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase levels
        Malate dehydrogenase levels
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 9 Citrate synthase activity
De Palma [27] 2007 Rat gnm 10% O2 10.1 14 Aconitase levels
        Malate dehydrogenase levels
        Pyruvate dehydrogenase levels
        Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase levels
Young [22] 1984 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 18 Malate dehydrogenase activity =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 5,300 m 11.3 19 Citrate synthase levels =
        Citrate synthase expression =
Green [15] 1992 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 21 Succinate dehydrogenase activity =
Green [19] 2000 Human vl 6,194 m 10.1 21 Citrate synthase activity =
Daneshrad [24] 2000 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 21 Citrate synthase activity =
Takahashi [34] 1993 Rat pla 10% O2 10.1 28 Malate dehydrogenase activity
Takahashi [34] 1993 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 28 Malate dehydrogenase activity =
Beaudry [39] 2010 Mouse gnm 480 mmHg 13.4 28 Citrate synthase activity =
Wuest [40] 2009 Rat pla 410 mmHg 11.5 28 Succinate dehydrogenase activity =
Jacobs [36] 2013b Human vl 3,454 m 14.2 28 Citrate synthase activity =
Galbes [32] 2008 Rat q 4,000 m 13.3 35 Citrate synthase activity =
Green [17] 1989 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 40 Citrate synthase activity
        Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 63 Citrate synthase activity
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat sol 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat pla 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat rq 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat wq 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 66 Citrate synthase levels
Mizuno [33] 2008 Human vl 5,250 m 11.4 75 Citrate synthase activity =
  1. ↑ Change in biomarker is indicative of an increase in TCA cycle function in hypoxia.
  2. = No change in biomarker in hypoxia.
  3. ↓ Change in biomarker is indicative of a decrease in TCA cycle function in hypoxia.
  4. Abbreviations: edl extensor digitorum longus, gnm gastrocnemius, mix mixed skeletal, pla plantaris, q quadriceps, rq red quadriceps, sol soleus, vl vastus lateralis, wq white quadriceps.