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Table 5 The effects of environmental hypoxia on biomarkers of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle

From: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism in environmental hypoxia: climbing towards consensus

First author Year Organism Muscle model Hypoxia model p(O 2 ) min (kPa) Duration (d) Marker Change
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 1 Complex I OXPHOS =
        Complex II OXPHOS =
        Complex IV OXPHOS =
Magalhaes [38] 2005 Mouse mix 8,500 m 7.4 2 Complex II OXPHOS
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat sol 5,860 m 10.1 3 Complex III activity =
        Complex IV activity =
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat gnm 5,860 m 10.1 3 Complex III activity =
        Complex IV activity
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 7 Complex I OXPHOS =
        Complex II OXPHOS =
        Complex IV OXPHOS =
Vigano [16] 2008 Human vl 4,559 m 12.4 8 Complex III levels
        Complex V levels
        ETF levels
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 9 Complex IV activity
Jacobs 2013a Human vl   12.4 10 Complex I OXPHOS =
        Complex II OXPHOS =
        Complex I+II OXPHOS =
De Palma [27] 2007 Rat gnm 10% O2 10.1 14 Complex V levels
Daneshrad [42] 2001 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 21 OXPHOS
Beaudry [39] 2010 Mouse gnm 480 mmHg 13.4 28 Complex IV activity =
Gamboa [41] 2010 Mouse gnm 10% O2 10.1 28 Complex II levels
        Complex IV levels
        Complex V levels
Gamboa [43] 2012 Mouse mix 10% O2 10.1 28 Complex IV levels
        Complex V activity
        Complex I OXPHOS
Jacobs [36] 2013b Human vl 3,454 m 14.2 28 Complex I OXPHOS
        Complex II OXPHOS
        Complex I+II OXPHOS
        Complex IV activity =
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat sol 4,300 m 12.8 56 Complex IV activity
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat pla 4,300 m 12.8 56 Complex IV activity
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat gnm 4,300 m 12.8 56 Complex IV activity =
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 63 Complex IV activity
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 66 Complex I expression =
        Complex I levels
        Complex II levels =
        Complex III levels =
        Complex IV expression =
        Complex IV levels
        Complex V expression =
        Complex V levels
  1. ↑ Change in biomarker is indicative of an increase in oxidative phosphorylation in hypoxia.
  2. = No change in biomarker in hypoxia.
  3. ↓ Change in biomarker is indicative of a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation in hypoxia.
  4. Abbreviations: gnm gastrocnemius, mix mixed skeletal, pla plantaris, sol soleus, vl vastus lateralis.