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Table 6 The effects of environmental hypoxia on biomarkers of mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle

From: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism in environmental hypoxia: climbing towards consensus

First author Year Organism Muscle model Hypoxia model p(O 2 ) min (kPa) Duration (d) Marker Change
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 1 Citrate synthase activity =
        Complex IV OXPHOS =
Magalhaes [38] 2005 Mouse mix 8,500 m 7.4 2 Complex II OXPHOS
Magalhaes [46] 2007 Mouse mix 8,500 m 7.4 2 Bax expression
        Bcl-2 expression
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat sol 5,860 m 10.1 3 Complex IV activity =
        Citrate synthase activity =
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat gnm 5,860 m 10.1 3 Complex IV activity
        Citrate synthase activity
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 3 BNIP3 expression =
        PGC-1α expression =
Morash [31] 2013 Mouse mix 13% O2 13.1 7 Citrate synthase activity =
        Complex IV OXPHOS =
Dutta [28] 2009 Rat mix 349 mmHg 10.3 7 Citrate synthase activity
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 9 Complex IV activity
        Citrate synthase activity
        PGC-1α expression
        BNIP3 expression =
Jacobs [35] 2013a Human vl 4,559 m 12.4 10 Complex I OXPHOS capacity =
        Complex II OXPHOS capacity =
        Complex I+II OXPHOS capacity =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 5,300 m 11.3 19 Mitochondrial density =
        PGC-1α levels =
Green [19] 2000 Human vl 6,194 m 10.1 21 Citrate synthase activity =
Daneshrad [24] 2000 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 21 Citrate synthase activity =
Daneshrad [42] 2001 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 21 OXPHOS
Beaudry [39] 2010 Mouse gnm 480 mmHg 13.4 28 Complex IV activity =
        Citrate synthase activity =
Gamboa [41] 2010 Mouse gnm 10% O2 10.1 28 Mitochondrial density =
        BNIP3 expression =
        Complex IV levels
        PGC-1α levels =
Gamboa [43] 2012 Mouse mix 10% O2 10.1 28 Complex I OXPHOS
Jacobs [36] 2013b Human vl 3,454 m 14.2 28 Complex I OXPHOS
        Complex II OXPHOS
        Complex I+II OXPHOS
        Complex IV activity =
        Citrate synthase activity =
Galbes [32] 2008 Rat q 4,000 m 13.3 35 Citrate synthase activity =
Green [17] 1989 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 40 Citrate synthase activity
MacDougall [44] 1991 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 40 Mitochondrial density =
van Ekeren [47] 1992 Rat edl 8% O2 8.1 45 Mitochondrial density
van Ekeren [47] 1992 Rat sol 8% O2 8.1 45 Mitochondrial density
Hoppeler [45] 1990 Human vl 5,000 m 11.7 56 Mitochondrial density
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat sol 4,300 m 12.8 56 Complex IV activity
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat gnm 4,300 m 12.8 56 Complex IV activity =
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat pla 4,300 m 12.8 56 Complex IV activity
Chaillou [14] 2013 Rat pla 5,500 m 11.0 63 Complex IV activity
        Citrate synthase activity
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat sol 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat pla 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat rq 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat wq 13% O2 13.1 64 Citrate synthase activity =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 66 Mitochondrial density
        PGC-1α levels
        PGC-1α expression =
Mizuno [33] 2008 Human vl 5,250 m 11.4 75 Citrate synthase activity =
  1. ↑ Change in biomarker is indicative of an increase in mitochondrial density in hypoxia.
  2. = No change in biomarker in hypoxia.
  3. ↓ Change in biomarker is indicative of a decrease in mitochondrial density in hypoxia.
  4. Abbreviations: gnm gastrocnemius, mix mixed skeletal, pla plantaris, q quadriceps, rq red quadriceps, sol soleus, vl vastus lateralis, wq white quadriceps.