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Table 3 Descriptive data for MSI studies meeting the inclusion criteria

From: Water immersion for post incident cooling of firefighters; a review of practical fire ground cooling modalities

Cooling rate n Age (years) Ta (°C) Mins to treatment Tw (°C) Duration (mins) BMI (kg m2) BSA (m−2) Tc site Pre Tc Δ Tc (°C min−1) Immersion depth References
Unacceptable 9M 24 20.0 0 20 25 24.5 2.0 GI 38.6 ~0.01 Mid-sternum [35]
9M 29 18.0 5 8 15 21.7 1.8 GI 38.3 ~0.03 Lower body [36]
13M 39 29.5 0 25 30 27.6 2.1 GI 38.5 ~0.04b Mid-sternum [2]
5M 25 NR NR 10–12 30 26.2 2.0 R 38.8 0.04 Torso [37]
9M/7F 24 22.2 NR 14 30 22.3 2.0 R 38.7 ~0.04b Neck out [30]
9M 21 NR 10 10 20 23.5 2.0 GI 38.4 ~0.04 Mid-sternum [38]
10M 27 24.0 25 14.3 20 23.8 2.0 R 38.2 ~0.04 Mid-sternum [39]
12M 29 24.0 25 14.3 20 NR NR R 38.6 ~0.04 Mid-sternum [40]
9M 29 18.0 5 15 15 21.7 1.8 GI 38.4 ~0.05 Lower body [36]
12M 29 24.0 25 14.3 10 NR NR R 38.6 ~0.05 Mid-sternum [40]
12M 29 24.0 25 14.3 5 NR NR R 38.6 ~0.06 Mid-sternum [40]
10M 29 22.0 5 26 ~42 26.8 2.1 R 40.0 0.06a Mid-sternum [41]
Acceptable 9M 19 NR NR 25 30 19.6 1.6 R 38.5 ~0.07 Neck out [42]
10M 29 23.0 5 14 15 NR NR R 38.8 ~0.07 Mid-sternum [43]
12M 32 NR NR 14 15 22.1 1.9 R 38.5 ~0.08 Neck out [44]
10M 35 NR 5 14 15 24.0 2.0 R 38.6 0.08 Mid-sternum [45]
26M 39 19.7 10 15 15 25.8 2.0 GI 38.9 0.09b Lower body [5]
10M 34 32.8 5 15 15 24.2 2.0 R 38.5 ~0.09 Neck out [46]
10M 29 22.0 5 26 ~25 24.9 2.0 R 40.0 0.10a Mid-sternum [41]
8M 23 20-22 5 26 26 21.2 2.0 R 40.1 0.10a Neck out [47]
Ideal 4M 23 25.0 5 23.5 6 26.1 1.9 R 39.2 ~0.11a Mid-sternum [48]
6M/4F 22 25.0 1.5 2 16 22.9 1.8 R 39.6 0.14 Neck out [49]
3M/4F 22 25.7 2.7 14 17 23.6 1.8 R 39.8 0.15a Neck out [50]
14M/3F 28 28.9 2-4 5.2 12 21.1 1.9 R 39.5 0.16b Torso [31]
14M/3F 28 28.9 2-4 14 12 21.1 1.9 R 39.6 0.16b Torso [31]
12M/3F 28 29.5 2-4 14 12 21.1 1.9 R 39.5 0.16b Torso/upper legs [32]
10M 29 22.0 5 2 ~16 26.8 2.1 R 40.0 0.16a Mid-sternum [41]
8M 30 40.0 40 2 ~12.5 24.6 2.0 R 39.6 0.17a Mid-sternum [51]
8M 30 40.0 20 2 ~14 24.6 2.0 R 39.9 0.17a Mid-sternum [51]
4M 22 25.0 5 11.7 6 23.9 1.9 R 39.8 ~0.18a Mid-sternum [48]
8M 23 20-22 5 14 13.9 21.2 2.0 R 40.1 0.18a Neck out [47]
3M/4F 22 25.7 2.7 8 15 23.6 1.8 R 39.8 0.19a Neck out [50]
3M/4F 22 25.7 2.7 20 18 23.6 1.8 R 39.8 0.19a Neck out [50]
12M/3F 28 29.5 2-4 5.2 12 21.1 1.9 R 39.5 0.20b Torso/upper legs [32]
13M/1F 35 24.4 4-8 1–3 16 NR NR R 41.7 0.20b Torso/upper legs [33]
9M 26 NR NR 8 13.1 26.7 2.1 R 39.9 0.20 Mid-sternum [34]
8M 30 40.0 5 2 ~12.5 24.6 2.0 R 40.1 0.21a Mid-sternum [51]
131M/81F 32 23.3 NR ~10 NR NR NR R 41.4 0.22b Torso/upper legs [52]
8M 27 NR NR 8 12.8 22.9 1.9 R 40.1 0.23 Mid-sternum [34]
7M/2F 26 ~29.0 6.3 2 ~6 24.6 1.9 R 39.6 0.26a Mid-sternum [53]
10M 29 22.0 5 2 ~9 24.9 2.0 R 40.0 0.27a Mid-sternum [41]
18M 22 39.9 NR ~10 6.2 25.7 2.0 R 39.5 0.28a Neck out [54]
3M/4F 22 25.7 2.7 2 9 23.6 1.8 R 39.8 0.35a Neck out [50]
  1. n number of participants, M male, F female, T a ambient temperature, T w water temperature, R rectum, GI gastrointestinal tract, NR not reported
  2. acirculated bath
  3. bfield treatment