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Table 2 Summary of studies of blood doping and exercise

From: ‘Blood doping’ from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients

Authors Date Storage technique Volume infuseda (ml) Time of reinfusion post phlebotomy Hb or Hct vs controlb (%) \({\dot{\text{V}}}\)O2max vs control (%) End capacityc vs controlb (%)
Pace et al 1947 Freshg 2000 +26d N.R +34.7d
Gullbring et al 1960 Refridg 610 7 days +0.7 N.R +3
Robinson et al 1966 Refridg 1000 2 weeks +4.8 +1.4 N.R
Ekblom et al 1972 Refridg 800 4 weeks +2.1 +5.5e + 15.6e
   Refridg 1200 4 weeks +1.3 +1.6e + 25.1e
Von Rost et al 1975 Refridg 900 3 weeks +2.7 +9.0e + 375
Bell et al 1976 Refridg 500 3 weeks +1.0 +5.6f + 7.5
Ekblom et al 1976 Refridg 800 ~5 weeks +4.5e +8.0d N.R
Videman and RytÖmaa 1977 Refridg 4–600 2–3 weeks +2.6 N.R + 3.8
Robertson et al 1978 Abst N.R 1800 NR N.R. +12.8d + 15.6d
Williams et al 1978 Frozen 460 3 weeks +3.3 N.R + 4.1
Cottrell 1979 Abst Frozen 405 9 weeks N.R. ~+2.0f N.R
Roberston et al 1979 Abst N.R 800 N.R. +15.8d +30.5d + 13.1d
Buick et al 1980 Frozen 900 7 weeks +11d +5d + 35d
Spriet et al 1980 Abst Frozen 800 11 weeks +7.9d +3.9d N.R
    1200 12 weeks +10.7d +6.6d N.R
Williams et al 1981 Frozen 920 7 weeks +7d N.R +2.5d
  1. Reproduced with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health [44]
  2. NR data not reported, Refridg refrigerated
  3. aWhole blood or equivalent whole blood
  4. b Control pre-phlebotomy measurement
  5. cEndurance exercise capacity, physical work capacity or performance time
  6. dStatistically significant (P ≤ 0.05)
  7. eNo statistical analysis reported
  8. fPredicted from submaximal exercise heart rate
  9. gFresh homologous blood; all other studies used autologous blood