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Table 3 Risks associated with blood transfusion and manipulation

From: ‘Blood doping’ from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients

Theoretical Demonstrated
Age of stored blood may affect its efficacy; the so-called ‘storage lesion’ [65] Transfer of infectious diseases [40]
  Transfusion reactions/anaphylaxis
  Increase in colorectal cancer recurrence [66]
  Phlebitis [40]
  Septicaemia [40]
  Graft versus host disease (GvHD)
  Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) [67, 68]
  Hyper-viscosity PE and DVT [40]
  Air embolism [40]
  Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)
  Risk of wrong blood (storage problems) [25]
  Detraining effect [40]
  Illegal practice to blood dope [25, 26]