Skip to main content

Table 3 Risks associated with blood transfusion and manipulation

From: ‘Blood doping’ from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients



Age of stored blood may affect its efficacy; the so-called ‘storage lesion’ [65]

Transfer of infectious diseases [40]


Transfusion reactions/anaphylaxis


Increase in colorectal cancer recurrence [66]


Phlebitis [40]


Septicaemia [40]


Graft versus host disease (GvHD)


Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) [67, 68]


Hyper-viscosity PE and DVT [40]


Air embolism [40]


Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)


Risk of wrong blood (storage problems) [25]


Detraining effect [40]


Illegal practice to blood dope [25, 26]