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Table 4 Outline of ESA in-flight exercise protocols for long-duration missions (LDM) utilising International Space Station (ISS) exercise hardware

From: Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS

  Resistive protocols Treadmill protocols Cycler ergometer protocols
Type Interval (6,8,15 reps, 3–5 sets, daily rotation) Continuous
Interval
Slope
Individual
Continuous
Interval
Slope
Hill
Load Variation of load and repetition (6–15 reps, 3–5 sets) Low/60 %, medium/75 %, high/85 %a (alternating daily) Low/60 %, medium/75 %, high/85 %a (alternating daily)
Progression 3–5 %/wk (upper and lower limbs)
Phase 1: initially alower/50–60 % loads, CM increases load at discretion
Phase 2: systematic increase based on Phase 1 final load
Phase 3: maintain high loading or increase (3–5 %)
Between 0 and 5 speed (km/h) or interval duration (min) increase events over mission
Phase 1: Initially lower loads, CM increases load at discretion
Phase 2: Individual increase (SLS load [kg], intervals [min]/number, speed [km/h], protocol type based on crew feedback
Phase 3: continued increase in load (if possible)
Initial workload (W) decrease up to −30 %, increase to 100 % toward end of mission
Phase 1: Initially lower loads, CM increases load at discretion
Phase 2: Individual increase of workload (W), intervals (min)/number, protocol “shape” based on crew feedback
Phase 3: continued increase (if possible)
Duration (average) 60 min 30 min 30 min
  1. CM crewmember; CMS countermeasures; IRED interim resistive exercise device (LDM 1 + 2); ARED advanced resistive exercise device (LDM 3–8); TVIS treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilisation system (LDM 1–3); T2 2nd generation treadmill (LDM 3–8); CEVIS cycle ergometer with vibration isolation and stabilisation system (LDM 1–8); VELO Russian cycle ergometer; SLS subject loading system
  2. aIntensity/ % relative to individual’s maximal capacity