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Table 5 Pre-, in- and post-flight fitness tests conducted with ESA long-duration mission crewmembers

From: Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS

Timing Measure (Test)
Annually, and L−90,L−60, R + 4-6, R + 21 Height
Body mass
Body composition (bio impedance)
Flexibility (Sit and reach, Thomas test
Postural stability (Pressure plate and balance board)
Hand grip strength
Muscle power (Squat, countermovement and drops jumps)
Major muscle group strength (1RM bench press, squat)
Core muscle endurance (time to exhaustion)
Cardiovascular capacity, LT and IAT (modified Bruce treadmill protocol)
L−300, L−90, L−60, R + 4-6, R + 21 Muscle strength (Isokinetic)
L−300, L−90, L−60, in-flight (FD15 and then every 30 days), R + 4-6, R + 21 Spiroergomtery (100 % [pre- and post-flight only], 25–75 % cardiovascular capacity on cycle ergometer)
  1. 1 RM One repetition maximum; LT lactate threshold; IAT Individual anaerobic threshold; FD flight day (on ISS); L– launch date minus (number of days); R+ Return date plus (number of days)