Skip to main content

Table 1 A comparison of ultra-endurance walking and running events

From: Nutritional implications for ultra-endurance walking and running events

Year published Name Subject(s) Location Time length Exercise mode Distance (km) Energy intake Energy expenditure Total energy deficit Climate Terrain/altitude Nutrition/fluid stations Self-procured nutrition Reference
1977 N/A 1 male N/A 20 h Running and walking 160 9600 kcal 10,720 kcal −1120 kcal Temperature range: 12–20 °C Wind speeds range: 15–17 km/h N/A Fluid stations None [16]
1993 N/A 9 female N/A 7 days Running N/A 14,270 kcal 20,940 kcal −6670 kcal N/A N/A N/A Food: ad libitum
Liquids: ad libitum
[23]
1994 N/A 1 male Sydney to Melbourne, Australia 199 h Running 1005 5972.57 kcal/day N/A N/A Temperature range: 8–25 °C Accumulated altitude: 900 m Ascent: 1000 m Descent: 100 m Food and beverage provided every 15–20 mins. Fluids: carbohydrate supplemented beverage  Food: Potato, rice, pasta, and bread N/A [21]
2000 Australian run 1 male Australia 217 days (data compiled over 2 weeks of this time) Running 14,500 N/A 6321 kcal Negative N/A N/A None Food: ad libitum
Fluids: ad libitum
[12]
2002 N/A 26 (21 male, 5 female) New York, USA 26.2 ± 3.6 h Running 160 7050 kcal 14,340 kcal 7290 kcal Temperature range: 21–38 °C N/A 37 food stations None [8]
2004 Marathon Des Sables 1 male Sahara Desert 6 days Running 229 17,572 kcal 33,776.75 kcal –16,204.745 kcal Temperature range: 5 °C(night)–50 °C(day) N/A None Food: ad libitum (dehydrated meals)
Fluids: ad libitum (carbohydrate supplemented drinks)
[195]
2005 Tour des Dents du Midi 42 (39 male, 3 female) Switzerland 7 h 3 min Running and walking 44 219–2405 kcal N/A −1889 to −2470 kcal Temperature range: 18–30 °C Humidity range: 34–61% at the lowest altitude, and 57–92% at the highest altitude Wind speeds range: 1–21 km/h Total ascent:2890 m Ascent and descent range: 860–2494 m 15 support stations
Fluids:water, sweet tea
Food: Banana and orange slices, dried fruit mix, cereal bars and grape sugar cubes
Food: ad libitum
Fluids: ad libitum
[7]
2010 100 km Biel 11 female Biel, Switzerland 12.7 h ± 91 min Running 100 570 ± 230 kcal 6310 ± 1340 kcal −5750 ± 1170 kcal Temperature range: 8–15 °C N/A 17 aid stations
Fluids: isotonic sports drinks,tea,
soup, caffeinated drinks and water Food: bananas, oranges, energy bars and bread
Fluids: ad libitum [17]
2011 N/A 1 male Atcama Desert, Chile 23 days Walking 593 40,733 kcal 110,791 kcal –70,058 kcal Described as: temperate climate Average altitude: 3103 ± 704 m None Food: freeze-dried foods, snacks
Beverages: coffee
[13]
2011 100 km Biel 27 male Biel, Switzerland 11.5 h ± 119 min Running 100 760 ± 300 kcal 7420 ± 1660 kcal –6660 ± 1650 kcal Temperature range: 8–18 °C N/A 17 aid stations
Fluids: isotonic sports drinks, tea,
soup, caffeinated drinks and water Food: bananas, oranges, energy bars and bread
Fluids: ad libitum [20]
2013 MSUM 74 (46 male, 28 female) Al Andalus Ultimate Trail, Spain 5 days Running 225 16,740 kcal 19,155–24,995 kcal –2415 to –8225 kcal Described as: hot ambient environment N/A Aid stations situated 10 km apart
Food: fruit (oranges and watermelon)
Fluids: plain water, electrolyte supplementation.
Fluids: ad libitum [15]
2013 MDUER 1 male North Scotland to Moroccan Sahara desert 78 days Running 4254 5541.2 ± 764.3 kcal/day N/A N/A Described as: extreme weather conditions (maximum range: 2.8–45.0 °C) Altitude of ascent and descent ranged between 0 and 2400 m above sea level, with 7 days at altitude 31500 m Food and liquid provided daily N/A [9]
2014 Glenmore24 Trail Race 25 (19 male, 6 female) Cairngorms National
Park, UK
24 h Running and walking 122–208 4776.9 ± 2627.3 kcal 13,136.5 ± 2627.3 kcal –8359.6 kcal Temperature range: 0–20 °C in 2011 and 3–19 °C in 2012 Humidity range: 54–82% Average altitude: 342 m (SD 303 m) Plain water and electrolyte
supplementation every 3 km
Food: ad libitum
Fluids: ad libitum
[14]
2014 N/A 6 unspecified Sierra de Gredos, Spain 14 h 6 min Running 54 5124.6 ± 531.2 kcal 9856.6 ± 859.8 kcal –4732 kcal Temperature range: 8–26 °C Temperature average: 14.9 ± 8.7 °C Maximum altitude : 2484 m Minimum altitude : 1149 m None Food: energy bars
Fluids: water from various natural sources
[10]
2015 South Pole Race 13 (12 male, 1 female) Antarctic 22.5 days Running 800 Faster finishers: 5332 ± 469 kcal/day Slower finishers: 3048 ± 1140 kcal/day N/A N/A Temperature average: −24.0 °C Humidity: 59.3% Wind speed: 6.6 ms Altitude range: 2000–2615 m Snack bags provided (contents: macadamias, chocolate bars, cheese, candy, biltong, muesli, freeze-dried meals, noodles, soup, hot chocolate, coffee, tea, milk) Food: ad libitum
Fluids: ad libitum
[11]
2016 N/A 11 unspecified Castles of Cartagena, Spain 6 h 44 min ± 28 min Running 54 1493.1 ± 491.5 kcal 5197.1 ± 488.8 kcal –3704 kcal N/A Accumulated altitude: 5391 m; None Food: energy bars, glucose tablets and fruit
Fluids: Water and energy drinks
[33]