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  1. Content type: Review

    Hydration pertains simplistically to body water volume. Functionally, however, hydration is one aspect of fluid regulation that is far more complex, as it involves the homeostatic regulation of total body flui...

    Authors: James David Cotter, Simon N Thornton, Jason KW Lee and Paul B Laursen

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:18

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  2. Content type: Research

    The aims of this study were to describe the cellular stress response to prolonged endurance exercise in acute heat, hypoxia and the combination of heat and hypoxia and to determine whether prior acute exposure...

    Authors: Ben J Lee, Emma L Emery-Sinclair, Richard WA Mackenzie, Afthab Hussain, Lee Taylor, Rob S James and C Douglas Thake

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:15

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  3. Content type: Review

    Major surgery and critical illnesses such as sepsis and trauma all disturb normal physiological fluid handling. Intravenous fluid therapy for resuscitation and fluid maintenance is a central part of medical ca...

    Authors: Mark R Edwards and Michael G Mythen

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:16

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  4. Content type: Review

    Occupational heat exposure threatens the health of a worker not only when heat illness occurs but also when a worker’s performance and work capacity is impaired. Occupational contexts that involve hot and humi...

    Authors: Rebekah A I Lucas, Yoram Epstein and Tord Kjellstrom

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:14

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  5. Content type: Career perspective

    I received most of my education in Canada, finishing at the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison medical school, where I have remained throughout my academic career. The research in our laboratory centered on ...

    Authors: Jerome A Dempsey

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:13

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  6. Content type: Commentary

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term ‘extreme’ typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals’ beh...

    Authors: James David Cotter and Michael J Tipton

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:11

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  7. Content type: Research

    The limiting physiological envelope to extreme gravitational stress is defined by neurologic symptoms and signs that result from exceeding neurologic tolerance. The edge of the limiting envelope is defined by ...

    Authors: Typ Whinnery, Estrella M Forster and Paul B Rogers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:9

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  8. Content type: Research

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equival...

    Authors: Beth A Beidleman, Charles S Fulco, Janet E Staab, Sean P Andrew and Stephen R Muza

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:8

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  9. Content type: Review

    Frostbite presentation to hospital is relatively infrequent, and the optimal management of the more severely injured patient requires a multidisciplinary integration of specialist care. Clinicians with an inte...

    Authors: Charles Handford, Pauline Buxton, Katie Russell, Caitlin EA Imray, Scott E McIntosh, Luanne Freer, Amalia Cochran and Christopher HE Imray

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:7

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  10. Content type: Meeting Report

    With the increasing number of medical schools in Nepal, there is an expected increase in the number of Nepalese physiologists. The first medical school was established in the 1970s. We report here about the fi...

    Authors: Ghan Bahadur Thapa, Narayan Bahadur Mahotra and Matiram Pun

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:5

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  11. Content type: Research

    We sought to determine if adult residents living at high altitude have developed sufficient adaptation to a hypoxic environment to match the functional capacity of a similar population at sea level. To test th...

    Authors: Deirdre Caffrey, J Jaime Miranda, Robert H Gilman, Victor G Davila-Roman, Lilia Cabrera, Russell Dowling, Talia Stewart, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Robert Wise, Fabiola Leon-Velarde and William Checkley

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:3

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  12. Content type: Research

    Age and peak performance in ultra-endurance athletes have been mainly investigated in long-distance runners and triathletes, but not for long-distance swimmers. The present study investigated the age and swimm...

    Authors: Matthias Alexander Zingg, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers and Beat Knechtle

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2014 3:2

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  13. Content type: Career perspective

    Military Ergonomics is a name I made up when the Commander at the US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) told me 'The Surgeon General wants to give you a Research Division of your own.’ I ...

    Authors: Ralph F Goldman

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:35

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  14. Content type: Career perspective

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and plann...

    Authors: Peter D Wagner

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:31

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  15. Content type: Commentary

    Xtreme Everest 2 (XE2) was part of an ongoing programme of field, laboratory and clinical research focused on human responses to hypoxaemia that was conducted by the Caudwell Xtreme Everest Hypoxia Research Co...

    Authors: Daniel S Martin, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Denny ZH Levett, Kay Mitchell, Rajendra Kumar BC, Michael G Mythen and Michael PW Grocott

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:30

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  16. Content type: Career perspective

    After training in physics during World War II, I spent 2 years designing radar at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then switched to biophysics. After medical school and a residency, I was doctor draft...

    Authors: John W Severinghaus

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:29

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  17. Content type: Research

    Special Tactics Officer (STO) selection is conducted to select officers to enter the combat controller training pipeline. The aims were to determine physical activity patterns, estimate energy expenditure, and...

    Authors: John S Cuddy, Andrew R Reinert, Walter S Hailes, Dustin R Slivka and Brent C Ruby

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:28

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  18. Content type: Research

    The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; s...

    Authors: Michael Stiefel, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:27

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  19. Content type: Review

    High-intensity exercise is associated with mechanical and/or metabolic stresses that lead to reduced performance capacity of skeletal muscle, soreness and inflammation. Cold-water immersion and other forms of ...

    Authors: Gillian E White and Greg D Wells

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:26

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  20. Content type: Case Report

    Environmental conditions in the Falklands Conflict of 1982 favoured the genesis of cold injuries. Immediately, post-war, cold injury morbidity and its contributory factors were assessed, in the personnel of UK...

    Authors: Francis St Clair Golden, Thomas James Roose Francis, Deborah Gallimore and Roger Pethybridge

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:23

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  21. Content type: Research

    Participation and performance trends have been investigated in a single stage Ironman triathlon such as the ‘Ironman Hawaii,’ but not for a multi-stage ultra-triathlon such as the ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ covering a ...

    Authors: Dimirela Meili, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:25

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  22. Content type: Research

    The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 19...

    Authors: Matthias Zingg, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Romuald Lepers, Thomas Rosemann and Beat Knechtle

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:21

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  23. Content type: Meeting report

    The 15th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Queenstown, New Zealand, February 11 to 15, 2013 (ICEE2013) brought together researchers interested in work and exercise physiology, safety, comfo...

    Authors: James David Cotter, Samuel John Edwin Lucas and Toby Mündel

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:22

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  24. Content type: Research

    +Gz-time tolerance curves were developed to predict when exposure to +Gz stress exceeds human tolerance resulting in neurologic signs and symptoms. The +Gz-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) curves were dev...

    Authors: Typ Whinnery and Estrella M Forster

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:19

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  25. Content type: Research

    In recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, an...

    Authors: Matthias Zingg, Beat Knechtle, Christoph A Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:18

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  26. Content type: Research

    Cold-water diving requires good thermal insulation because hypothermia is a serious risk. Water conducts heat more efficiently compared to air. To stay warm during a dive, the choice of thermal protection shou...

    Authors: Xavier CE Vrijdag, Pieter-Jan AM van Ooij and Robert A van Hulst

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:17

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  27. Content type: Research

    The aim of the present study was to compare the trends in participation, performance and age of finishers in ‘Badwater’ and ‘Spartathlon’ as two of the toughest ultramarathons in the world of more than 200 km ...

    Authors: Kristina da Fonseca-Engelhardt, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers and Thomas Rosemann

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:15

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  28. Content type: Meeting report

    This is a report of the First Conference on Physiological and Physical Employment Standards. This was the first conference of its kind, attended by scientists, physicians, occupational medics, high-ranking pol...

    Authors: Gemma S Milligan and Michael J Tipton

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:14

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  29. Content type: Career perspective

    This article is an autobiographical account of my career as a human physiologist. I have spent 55 years traversing mountains, continents, seas, and skies, carrying out research in the laboratories of several i...

    Authors: Paolo Cerretelli

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:13

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  30. Content type: Research

    Current 2010 terrestrial (1Gz) CPR guidelines have been advocated by space agencies for hypogravity and microgravity environments, but may not be feasible. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate rescuer perf...

    Authors: Thais Russomano, Justin H Baers, Rochelle Velho, Ricardo B Cardoso, Alexandra Ashcroft, Lucas Rehnberg, Rodrigo D Gehrke, Mariana K P Dias and Rafael R Baptista

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:11

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  31. Content type: Research

    The present study examined the sex difference in swimming (7.8 km), cycling (360 km), running (84 km), and overall race times for Double Iron ultra-triathletes.

    Authors: Katrin Sigg, Beat Knechtle, Christoph A Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers and Thomas Rosemann

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:12

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  32. Content type: Research

    The ventilatory compensation point (VCP) is an exercise threshold which has been used in the design of training programs in sports medicine and rehabilitation. We recently demonstrated that changes in the slop...

    Authors: Gabriele Valli, Mattia Internullo, Alessandro M Ferrazza, Paolo Onorati, Annalisa Cogo and Paolo Palange

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:7

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  33. Content type: Research

    Underwater divers are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal symptoms than a control population. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine whether musculoskeletal symptoms reflected observable physica...

    Authors: John AS Ross, Jennifer I Macdiarmid, Claire L Rostron, Stephen J Watt and John R Crawford

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:5

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  34. Content type: Review

    Firefighting is a hazardous profession which has claimed on average the lives of 105 US firefighters per year for the past decade. The leading cause of line-of-duty mortality is sudden cardiac death, which acc...

    Authors: Denise L Smith, David A Barr and Stefanos N Kales

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:6

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