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Table 1 Relative risk of cardiovascular outcome by risk factor in firefighters

From: Extreme sacrifice: sudden cardiac death in the US Fire Service

  On-duty CHD fatalities Non-CHD cardiovascular retirements CHD retirements
  OR (95% CI)[19] OR (95% CI)[18] OR (95% CI)[18]
Current smoking 8.6 (4.2–17) 2.5 (1.2–5.1) 3.9 (2.5–6.2)
Hypertension 12 (5.8–25) 11 (6.1–20) 5.4 (3.7–7.9)
Obesity, BMI ≥ 30 kg·m−2 3.1 (1.5–6.6) 3.6 (2.0–6.4) 1.4 (0.96–1.93)
Cholesterol ≥ 5.18 mmol·l−1 (200 mg·dl−1) 4.4 (1.5–13) 1.1 (0.51–2.24) 2.4 (1.6–3.6)
Diabetes mellitus 10.2 (3.7–28) 7.7 (2.9–20) 13 (6.1–28)
Prior diagnosis of CHD 35 (9.5–128) NA 30 (9.1–96)
Age ≥ 45 years old 18 (8.5–40) 26 (13–51) 63 (35–111)
  1. Hypertension is defined as resting blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, previous diagnosis of hypertension, or receiving antihypertensive therapy. Diabetes mellitus is defined as random blood glucose > 8.3 mmol·l−1 (150 mg·dl−1), previous diagnosis, or receiving insulin or hypoglycemic medication. CHD, coronary heart disease; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index.