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Table 2 The effects of environmental hypoxia on biomarkers of glycolysis in skeletal muscle

From: Skeletal muscle energy metabolism in environmental hypoxia: climbing towards consensus

First author Year Organism Muscle model Hypoxia model p(O 2 ) min (kPa) Duration (d) Marker Change
Green [15] 1992 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 1 Phosphofructokinase activity
        Hexokinase activity =
Roberts [20] 1996 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 1 Glucose oxidation =
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat gnm 10% O2 10.1 3 Hexokinase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity
        Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Pyruvate kinase activity
Pastoris [29] 1995 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 3 Hexokinase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity
        Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Pyruvate kinase activity =
Dutta [28] 2009 Rat mix 349 mmHg 10.3 7 Lactate dehydrogenase activity
Vigano [16] 2008 Human vl 4,559 m 12.4 8 Enolase levels
van Hall [21] 2009 Human vl 4,100 m 13.1 14 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
De Palma [27] 2007 Rat gnm 10% O2 10.1 14 β-enolase levels
        Phosphoglyercomutase 2 levels
        Pyruvate kinase levels
        Triose phosphate isomerase levels
Young [22] 1984 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 18 Hexokinase activity =
        Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 5,300 m 11.3 19 Hexokinase activity =
Roberts [30] 1996 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 21 Glucose oxidation
Green [15] 1992 Human vl 4,300 m 12.8 21 Phosphofructokinase activity
        Hexokinase activity
Daneshrad [24] 2000 Rat sol 10% O2 10.1 21 Hexokinase activity
        Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity =
        Pyruvate kinase levels =
Green [19] 2000 Human vl 6,194 m 10.1 21 Lactate dehydrogenase activity
Green [17] 1989 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 40 Hexokinase activity
        α-GPDH activity =
        Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity =
        Pyruvate kinase levels =
van Hall [21] 2009 Human vl 4,100 m 13.1 56 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat sol 4,300 m 12.8 56 Lactate dehydrogenase levels =
        Monocarboxylate transporter 1 levels =
        Monocarboxylate transporter 4 levels
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat pla 4,300 m 12.8 56 Lactate dehydrogenase levels =
        Monocarboxylate transporter 1 levels
        Monocarboxylate transporter 4 levels
McClelland [25] 2002 Rat gnm 4,300 m 12.8 56 Lactate dehydrogenase levels =
        Monocarboxylate transporter 1 levels =
        Monocarboxylate transporter 4 levels =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat sol 13% O2 13.1 64 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity
        Hexokinase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat pla 13% O2 13.1 64 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity =
        Hexokinase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat rq 13% O2 13.1 64 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity =
Abdelmalki [23] 1996 Rat wq 13% O2 13.1 64 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
        Phosphofructokinase activity
Levett [18] 2012 Human vl 8,848 m 7.1 66 Hexokinase activity
Ou [26] 2004 Rat edl 5,500 m 11.0 90 Lactate dehydrogenase activity =
  1. ↑ Change in biomarker is indicative of an increase in β-oxidation in hypoxia.
  2. = No change in biomarker in hypoxia.
  3. ↓ Change in biomarker is indicative of a decrease in β-oxidation in hypoxia.
  4. Abbreviations: edl extensor digitorum longus, mix mixed skeletal, pla plantaris, q quadriceps, rq red quadriceps, sol soleus, vl vastus lateralis, wq white quadriceps.