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Table 3 Oxygenation and ventilation variables

From: The physiological effects of hypobaric hypoxia versus normobaric hypoxia: a systematic review of crossover trials

Outcome Author and year Duration of exposure (h:min) Hypobaric hypoxia result [mean (SD)] Normobaric hypoxia result [mean (SD)] Difference (HH − NH) P value Direction of difference NH compared to HH
VE (L/min)        
Loeppky 1997 00:00 12.9 13.6 - - -
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:05 10.49 (2.59) 10.14 (1.51) - >0.05 NS
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 build, 00:05 acclimatisation 10.5 (4.9) 10.3 (1.8) 0.2 - -
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 build, 00:10 acclimatisation 35.7 (5.9) 39.7 (6.7) -4 <0.05 NH > HH
Savourey 2003 00:10 build, 00:30 - - - <0.02 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:30 10.70 (1.93) 10.78 (1.93) - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 01:00 13.6 (1.8) 13.3 (3.3) 0.3 >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010a 01:05 69.2 65.6 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:10 70.5 65.7 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:20 73.9 70.9 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:40 75.3 77 - >0.05 NS
Tucker 1983b 02:20 including 00:15 build 2.07 4.82 −2.75 - -
Loeppky 1997 03:00 10.3 14.3 −4.0 <0.01 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 06:00 10.6 12.7 −2.1 <0.05 NH > HH
Faiss 2013 08:00 11.8 (1.9) 14.9 (3.5) −3.1 <0.1 NH > HH
- 10.7 (1.8) 12.2 (1.6) −1.5 <0.05 NH > HH
- 12.7 (2.3) 14.2 (1.5) −1.5 <0.1 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 09:00 10.2 12.2 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 Recovery 12:00:00 9.2 10.1 - >0.05 NS
VT (L)        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 0.72 (0.25) 0.88 (0.22) - 0.03 NH > HH
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 buildc, 00:05 acclimatisation 0.81 (0.36) 0.82 (0.21) −0.01 - -
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 buildc, 00:10 acclimatisation 1.85 (0.56) 1.91 (0.53) −0.06 - NH > HH
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - <0.001 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 0.83 (0.37) 0.86 (0.34) - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 01:00 0.88 (0.21) 0.89 (0.26) −0.01 >0.05 NS
Tucker 1983b 02:20 including 00:15 buildc 106 152 -46 - NH > HH
Faiss 2013 08:00 0.75 (0.21) 0.94 (0.3) −0.19 <0.05 NH > HH
Faiss 2013 16:00 0.75 (0.23) 0.84 (0.24) −0.9 <0.1 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 10:00 - - - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 24:00:00 0.86 (0.25) 0.95 (0.23) −0.09 <0.05 NH > HH
Bf (cycles/min)        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 15.73 (4.64) 12.24 (3.80) - 0.03 HH > NH
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 buildc, 00:05 acclimatisation 13.3 (4.0) 13.4 (4.7) −0.1 - -
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 buildc, 00:10 acclimatisation 20.4 (5.4) 22.3 (7.4) −1.9 <0.05 NH > HH
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - <0.001 HH > NH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 14.77 (4.17) 13.76 (4.47) - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 01:00 16.8 (3.4) 15.9 (4.2) −0.9 >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:05 31 31 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:10 32 34 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:20 34 36 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:40 38 42 - >0.05 NS
Tucker 1983b 02:20 including 00:15 buildc 0.9 3.8 −2.9 - NH > HH
Faiss 2013 08:00 16.8 (2.7) 17.1 (4.4) −0.3 >0.05 NS
Loeppky 1997 10:00 - - - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 16:00 16.1 (3) 15.8 (3.7) −0.3 >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 24:00:00 16.8 (3.8) 16.2 (3.8) 0.6 >0.05 NS
PetO2 (mmHg)        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 72.5 (6.58) 79.56 (11.94) - 0.08 Borderline NH > HH
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 73.15 (7.16) 76.09 (11.61) - 0.08 Borderline NH > HH
Faiss 2013 01:00 66.4 (4.1) 62.3 (2.8) - 4.1 NS
Tucker 1983b 02:20 including 00:15 buildc −36.1 −32.6 −3.5 - -
Faiss 2013 08:00 61.9 (6.0) 61.6 (2.2) 0.3 >0.05 NS
Loeppky 1997 10:00 - - - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 16:00 65.0 (5.4) 62.7 (2.6) 2.3 >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 24:00:00 65.6 (5.5) 65.6 (2.8) 0 >0.05 NS
PetCO2 (mmHg)        
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:05 44.09 (6.38) 48.87 (5.53) - 0.05 Borderline NH > HH
Savourey 2003 00:10 build, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:30 43.43 (6.02) 46.13 (6.61) - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 01:00 33.4 (2.5) 29.4 (2.4) 4 <0.1 HH > NH
Tucker 1983c 02:20 including 00:15 build −2.8 −3.6 0.8 >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 08:00 33.8 (2.1) 27.5 (1.3) 6.3 <0.01 HH > NH
Loeppky 1997 10:00 - - −1.6 <0.02 NH > HH
Faiss 2013 16:00 33.1 (1.3) 27.9 (0.9) 5.2 <0.01 HH > NH
Faiss 2013 24:00:00 30.8 (1.4) 26.5 (1.5) 4.3 <0.01 HH > NH
VA (alveolar ventilation L/min)        
Loeppky 1997 00:00 9.4 10.1 - - -
Loeppky 1997 03:00 7.2 10.5 −46% <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 06:00 7.6 9.1 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 09:00 7.6 9.2 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 Recovery 12:00:00 6.7 7.2 - - -
VCO2 ml/min        
Loeppky 1997 00:00 295 333 - - -
Miyagawa 2010 01:05 2188 2108 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:10 2121 2007 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:20 2078 2060 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:40 2021 2082 - >0.05 NS
Loeppky 1997 03:00 216 330 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 06:00 227 296 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 09:00 235 302 −67 <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 Recovery 12:00 241 267 - - -
VO2 consumed        
Loeppky 1997 00:00 329 340 - - -
Miyagawa 2010 01:05 1709 1611 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:10 1783 1637 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:20 1826 1748 - >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:40 1836 1840 - >0.05 NS
Loeppky 1997 03:00 250 361 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 06:00 262 319 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 09:00 278 326 - <0.05 NH > HH
Loeppky 1997 12:00 301 291 - - -
FetO2        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - <0.00001 HH > NH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
FetCO2        
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:05 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2003 00:10 build, 00:30 - - - <0.00001 HH > NH
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
Duration of inspiration/s        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 1.94 (0.65) 2.99 (0.98) - 0.01 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 2.40 (1.25) 3.00 (1.16) - >0.05 NS
Duration of expiration/s        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 2.09 (0.87) 1.98 (0.84) - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) 1%−1        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 −0.05 0.03 - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 −0.09 −0.07 - >0.05 NS
SpO2 (%)        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 83.03 (4.49) 87.11 (4.81) −4.08 <0.05 NH > HH
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 buildc, 00:05 acclimatisation 91.6 (4.2) 89.1 (3.8) 2.5 <0.05 HH > NH
Basualto-Alarcon 2012 00:15 buildc, 00:10 acclimatisation 85.3 (3.8) 86.0 (1.7) −0.7 - -
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - <0.05 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 82.49 (4.39) 85.50 (4.84) −2.99 0.04 NH > HH
Faiss 2013 01:00 93 (1) 90 (3) 3 >0.05 NS
Tucker 1983b 02:20 including 00:15 buildc −13.2 −13.5 0.3 >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 08:00 91 (3) 91 (3) 0 >0.05 NS
Roach 1996 09:00 83% (1%) 83% (0.7%) 0 >0.05 NS
Loeppky 2005 10:00 82% 83% −1% >0.05 NS
Loeppky 1997 10:00 - - - >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 16:00 92 (2) 91 (2) 1 >0.05 NS
Faiss 2013 24:00:00 93 (2) 92 (1) 1 >0.05 NS
SaO2 (%)        
Self 2011 00:05 - - - 0.005 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 85% (4) 88% (3) −3 <0.05 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 81.09% (7.76) 85.48% (5.63) −4.39 0.07 Borderline NH > HH
Miyagawa 2010 01:05 82 83 −1 >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:10 81 82 −1 >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:20 81 82 −1 >0.05 NS
Miyagawa 2010 01:40 82 81 1 >0.05 NS
Roach 1996 09:00 83% (1%) 83% (0.7%) 0 >0.05 NS
PaO2        
Self 2011 00:05 - - - 0.004 HH > NH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2003 00:10 buildc, 00:30 6.38 (0.60) 6.90 (0.86) −0.52 ≤0.05 Borderline NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
CAL subjects Naughton 1995 00:52 - - −1.1 >0.05 NS
Control subjects Naughton 1995 00:52 - - 0.7 >0.05 NS
PaCO2        
Self 2011 00:05 - - - 0.005 NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:05 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2003 00:10 build, 00:30 4.65 (0.54) 5.06 (0.46) −0.41 ≤0.05 Borderline NH > HH
Savourey 2007 00:10 build, 00:30 46.3 (6.5) 52.2 (4.2) −5.9 0.005 NH > HH
CAL subjects Naughton 1995 00:52 - - 0.3 >0.05 NS
Control subjects Naughton 1995 00:52 - - −0.8 >0.05 NS
Tucker 1983b 02:20 including 00:15 build −3.7 −5.6 1.9 - -
Alveolar-arterial PO2 difference        
CAL subjects Naughton 1995 00:52 - - 0.7 >0.05 NS
Control subjects Naughton 1995 00:52 - - 0.2 >0.05 NS
Arterial O2 content        
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:05 - - - >0.05 NS
Savourey 2007 00:10 buildc, 00:30 - - - >0.05 NS
  1. This table lists all the values of the measured variables that relate to oxygenation and ventilation.
  2. NS insignificant, hyphen no values given, CAL Chronic Airflow Limitation.
  3. aExercise started at 01:00.
  4. bDifference from controls.
  5. cWhen the subjects entered the chamber, the environmental conditions were that of normal sea level but then were gradually made more hypoxic over the specified amount of time until the target hypoxic dose was reached.