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Table 3 The three in-flight phases of ESA’s personalised training approach for long-duration mission crewmembers

From: Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS

Phase Phase name and purpose Duration (nominal)
1 Adaptation phase—familiarise crewmember with ISS exercise hardware and adapt the crewmember to exercise in microgravity First 1–20 days of mission
2 Main phase—prevent physiological adaptation to microgravity Approximately 130–150 days
3 Preparation for Re-entry phase—prepare crewmember for rigours of re-entry and potential off-nominal landing scenarios Final 15–30 days of mission