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  1. Content type: Review

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffu...

    Authors: Nigel AS Taylor and Christiano A Machado-Moreira

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:4

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  2. Content type: Review

    On the ground, the essential requirement to remain orientated is a largely unconscious activity. In flight, orientation requires a conscious effort by the pilot particularly when the visual environment becomes...

    Authors: John Richard Rollin Stott

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:2

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  3. Content type: Review

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiol...

    Authors: Valerie F Gladwell, Daniel K Brown, Carly Wood, Gavin R Sandercock and Jo L Barton

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:3

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  4. Content type: Research

    Opioid receptors are possibly involved in the perception of exertion and the ventilatory response to exercise. We compared incremental cycling exercise in conditions of normoxia and hypoxia (11% O2) after injecti...

    Authors: Laurent Koglin and Bengt Kayser

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2013 2:1

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  5. Content type: Research

    The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years...

    Authors: Christoph A Rüst, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:15

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  6. Content type: Review

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequenc...

    Authors: Kyle J Hackney, Meghan Everett, Jessica M Scott and Lori Ploutz-Snyder

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:12

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  7. Content type: Research

    The purpose of this study was to investigate participation and performance changes in the multistage ultramarathon ‘Marathon des Sables’ from 2003 to 2012.

    Authors: Christoph Knoth, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:13

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  8. Content type: Career perspective

    I have been fortunate to work in two areas of extreme physiology and medicine: very high altitude and the microgravity of spaceflight. My introduction to high altitude medicine was as a member of Sir Edmund Hi...

    Authors: John B West

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:11

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  9. Content type: Career perspective

    This invited autobiography reviews the career of Michael N. Sawka. Influences: Dr. Sawka soon will retire after a 40-year research career and was influenced by great professors, mentors and colleagues. Career Pat...

    Authors: Michael N Sawka

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:10

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  10. Content type: Career perspective

    This paper is an overview of my career as a hospital physician with special interest in respiratory diseases. Alongside this career, I have been fortunate to be able to pursue my professional hobby of high alt...

    Authors: James Sibree Milledge

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:9

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  11. Content type: Research

    Skeletal muscle power is velocity-dependent under constant load conditions. Interferon (IFN)-γ is an inflammatory cytokine that regulates skeletal muscle recovery following insult in experimental animals. It i...

    Authors: Tyler Barker, Vanessa T Henriksen, Thomas B Martins, Carl R Kjeldsberg and Harry R Hill

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:6

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  12. Content type: Research

    The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study ...

    Authors: Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:5

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  13. Content type: Research

    Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evalua...

    Authors: Kyle J Hackney, Summer B Cook, Timothy J Fairchild and Lori L Ploutz-Snyder

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:3

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  14. Content type: Research

    Hypoxia and hypothermia are acknowledged risk factors for those who venture into high-altitude regions. There is, however, little in situ data that can be used to quantify these risks. Here, we use 7 months of co...

    Authors: Kent Moore, John Semple, Paolo Cristofanelli, Paolo Bonasoni and Paolo Stocchi

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:2

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  15. Content type: Research

    Photosynthesis maintains aerobic life on Earth, and Joseph Priestly first demonstrated this in his eighteenth-century bell jar experiments using mice and mint plants. In order to demonstrate the fragility of l...

    Authors: Daniel Martin, Andrew Thompson, Iain Stewart, Edward Gilbert, Katrina Hope, Grace Kawai and Alistair Griffiths

    Citation: Extreme Physiology & Medicine 2012 1:4

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