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Table 1 Mean [SD] perceived breathlessness, CBFv, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide production in WWI (condition a), CWI-R (b) and CWI-K (c); letters denote differences between the corresponding condition.

From: Brain blood flow and hyperventilation on cold water immersion: can treading water help control these symptoms of cold shock?

  CBFv (Δ%) VO2 (mL.kg-1.min-1) VCO2 (mL.kg-1.min-1)
  WWIa CWI-Rb CWI-Kc WWIa CWI-Rb CWI-Kc WWIa CWI-Rb CWI-Kc
PRE - - - 387[96] 407[58] 405[90] 335[80] 377[75] 365[87]
1 MIN 5[4]b -6[9]a -3[16] 633[117]c 671[129] 692[137]a 518[97]b,c 837[253]a 880[343]a
2 MIN 3[6]b -6[9]a 2[20] 424[84]c 437[94]c 534[89]a,b 375 [79]c 482[212]c 623[216]ab
3 MIN 3[4] 1[10] 3[16] 390[76]bc 432[84]ac 537[79]a,b 347 [76]c 405[173]c 497[133]ab
4 MIN 3[4] 7[11] 8 [21] 359[66]bc 436[101]ac 543[84]a,b 321[60]c 368[135]c 460[120]ab
5 MIN 5[6] 7[10] 4[17] 362[72]bc 454 [85]ac 570[99]ab 322[66]c 372[108]c 455[99]ab